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Samuel Ahado ()

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**BOSKOVA, I. – AHADO, S. – RATINGER, T. The effects of the participation in producer organisations on the performance of dairy farmers in the Czech Republic and future challenges. Agricultural Economics (Zemědělská ekonomika), 2020, roč. 66, č. 8, s. 345-354. ISSN: 0139-570X.

AHADO, S. – HEJKRLÍK, J. – RATINGER, T.Analysis of the economic performance of small farmers in post Soviet Eastern countries. Case of Georgia and Moldova. 2019, Analysis of the economic performance of small farmers in post-Soviet Eastern countries: Case of Georgia and Moldova Samuel Ahado, Jiri Hejkrlik, Tomas Ratinger While there are theoretical arguments for benefiting from collective action, there are not many empirical studies from the region of Eastern Europe confirming it. This study contributes to literature by examining the impact of cooperatives on economic performance of small-scale farmers in Georgia and Moldova, where establishment of new modern cooperatives is recently supported by national governments and international donors. The counterfactual analysis deploys a farm-level data of 415 respondents collected in 2018. Propensity score matching (PSM) approach is used to estimate treatment effects to control for selection biases. Determinants of cooperative membership is established to be age, education, farm size and distance to regional bigger market. The PSM model shows that membership increases farm gross value-added, market access and labour productivity (farm efficiency). Georgian farmers were economically better than their counterparts from Moldova in all three matching algorithms, suggesting that differences in national policy environment and level of external support play important role, even though both countries share similar historical and recent conditions for producers’ group development. .

AHADO, S. – HEJKRLÍK, J. – RATINGER, T.Factors affecting participation in cooperatives and its impact on economic performance of farmers’ in Georgia. 2019, Factors affecting participation in cooperatives and its impact on economic performance of farmers’ in Georgia Samuel Ahado, Jiri Hejkrlik, Tomas Ratinger Cooperation among small farmers can be an important strategy for smallholders to remain competitive and efficient in rapidly changing markets. While there are theoretical arguments for the benefits of economies of scale and lower transaction costs associated with collective action, there are still few empirical studies that confirm these benefits in the post-Soviet eastern countries including Georgia. This paper estimates the determinants and performance of small farmers participation in relatively new producer groups established with the assistance of EU ENPARD programme in Georgia. Nearest neighbour, kernel and radius matching algorithms were used to estimate treatment effect. The counterfactual analysis deploys farm-level data of 210 respondents collected by the authors in 2018 using standardised structured questionnaires. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to check for hidden bias due to unobservable selection. Determinants of membership decision was established to be farm size, education and perception of the economic and social benefits of cooperatives. The findings of this study indicate that members of cooperatives exhibit higher gross margins and farm revenues than their non-member counterparts. The estimates were found to be relatively insensitive to hidden bias..

**ENKHTUR, A. – HEJKRLÍK, J. – AHADO, S.Impact of agricultural cooperatives on smallholder vegetable farmers in Mongolia. 2018, European Research Conference of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA). “Cooperatives in a rapidly changing world: innovation in enterprise and community” 4-6th July 2018 Wageningen, Amsterdam.

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